Tybee National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 as a breeding area for migratory birds and other wildlife. Located at the mouth of the Savannah River, across from Fort Pulaski National Monument, this 400-acre refuge is covered with sand deposits from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' dredging activities in the river. The island habitat consists of eastern red cedar, wax myrtle, prickly pear and many non-native species, introduced from the dredged soil. At low tide, Tybee’s shoreline provides a resting and feeding place for many species of migratory birds.
Due to its limited habitat, small size, and location at the mouth of the Savannah River, where ship traffic makes navigation treacherous, Tybee NWR is closed to all public use.